Progress in Plant Protection

Perspectives on the use of bacteria in the protection of apple and pear against fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)
Perspektywy zastosowania bakterii w ochronie jabłoni i grusz przed zarazą ogniową (Erwinia amylovora)

Artur Mikiciński, e-mail: artur.mikicinski@inhort.pl

Instytut Ogrodnictwa, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice, Polska

Piotr Sobiczewski, e-mail: piotr.sobiczewski@inhort.pl

Instytut Ogrodnictwa, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice, Polska
Streszczenie

Protection of plants against fire blight (FB) caused by Erwinia amylovora includes the integration of various methods aimed at preventing their infection and elimination of FB disease. Copper containing plant protection products are the only compounds registered in Poland. However, various limitations associated with use of these pesticides increased interest in application of alternative methods, including antagonistic bacteria, which occur in natural conditions and have ability to protect plants from FB. The studies in various countries have demonstrated that the species Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens, as well as Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum are the most effective. The commercialy available bioproducts are based on the first three species. They are mainly used in apple and pear production at blooming period and in programs integrated with chemical pesticides. The results of the research conducted in Poland provide the basis for the development of a biopreparat containing one of the two prospective strains: 48M (Pantoea agglomerans) and 59M (Pseudomonas protegens).

 

Ochrona roślin przed zarazą ogniową obejmuje integrację różnych metod ukierunkowanych na zapobieganie ich porażeniu oraz wyniszczanie choroby. Spośród chemicznych środków ochrony roślin do walki z zarazą zarejestrowane są w Polsce prawie wyłącznie preparaty miedziowe. Jednak różne ograniczenia związane z ich stosowaniem spowodowały wzrost zainteresowania metodami alternatywnymi, w tym metodą biologiczną z wykorzystaniem bakterii. Stwierdzono, że w warunkach naturalnych występują bakterie działające antagonistycznie wobec sprawcy zarazy ogniowej oraz mające zdolności ochrony roślin przed chorobą. Badania prowadzone w różnych krajach wykazały, że najbardziej skuteczne są bakterie gatunków Pantoea agglomerans i Pseudomonas fluorescens, a także Bacillus subtilis i Lactobacillus plantarum. Na bazie wyselekcjonowanych szczepów trzech pierwszych z wymienionych gatunków produkuje się biopreparaty. Są one stosowane głównie w okresie kwitnienia jabłoni i grusz, a także w programach integrowanych ze środkami chemicznymi. Wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w Polsce dają podstawę do opracowania biopreparatu, którego składnikiem czynnym może być jeden z dwóch perspektywicznych szczepów: 48M (Pantoea agglomerans) i 59M (Pseudomonas protegens).

Słowa kluczowe
apple; pear; fire blight; biocontrol; efficacy; jabłoń; grusza; zaraza ogniowa; biologiczna ochrona; skuteczność
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Progress in Plant Protection (2018) : 0-0
Data pierwszej publikacji on-line: 2018-03-27 14:46:53
http://dx.doi.org/10.14199/ppp-2018-009
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