Progress in Plant Protection

“Priming”, readiness of plants to defend themselves against pests and pathogens
„Priming”, gotowość roślin do obrony przed szkodnikami i patogenami 

Dariusz Piesik, e-mail:

Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy w Bydgoszczy Katedra Entomologii i Fitopatologii Molekularnej , Kordeckiego 20, 85-225 Bydgoszcz , Polska

Plants are exposed to contact with a number of pathogenic organisms, whose influence leads to disturbances in their normal functioning. The greatest physiological changes, loss of yielding and lower quality crops are caused by insect pests, and also viruses and fungi. However, plants have developed a whole range of defense capabilities resulting from an exposure e.g. to pests. Infestation by plant pathogens or attack by herbivores induce the unique physiological state of the plant, which is called “priming”. This state may also be induced by treatment of the plants of different kinds of natural or synthetic compounds. Previously treated plants may' react faster and stronger in the activation of defense mechanisms. In fact, “priming” is responsible for the preparation of plant defense. Volatile organic compounds may be recognized as the factors, which influence on this phenomenon. Neighboring plants receive these signals and in consequence are better prepared to defense, because it begins before the attack of pest or pathogen.

Rośliny są narażane na kontakt z licznymi organizmami chorobotwórczymi, których oddziaływanie prowadzi do zaburzeń w ich prawidłowym funkcjonowaniu. Największe zmiany fizjologiczne, straty w plonowaniu i obniżenie jakości plonów, wywołują szkodniki z gromady owadów, a także wirusy i grzyby. Rośliny wykształciły jednak cały arsenał możliwości obronnych, indukowanych w następstwie kontaktu np. ze szkodnikami. Porażenie roślin przez patogeny lub atak ze strony roślinożerców powodują indukcję unikalnego stanu fizjologicznego roślin, jakim jest „priming”. Ten stan może być również wzbudzany przez traktowanie roślin różnego rodzaju związkami naturalnymi lub syntetycznymi. Rośliny poddane uprzednio „primingowi” reagują szybciej i silniej w aktywacji mechanizmów obronnych. W efekcie „priming” odpowiada za przygotowanie roślin do obrony. Czynnikami wpływającymi na to zjawisko mogą być lotne związki organiczne wydzielane przez rośliny uszkadzane. Rośliny sąsiednie natomiast odbierają te sygnały i w konsekwencji są lepiej przygotowane do obrony, gdyż zanim nastąpi atak szkodnika lub patogena zaczyna się obrona. 

Słowa kluczowe
volatile organic compounds; activation of plant defense mechanism;  lotne związki organiczne; aktywacja mechanizmu obronnego roślin

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Progress in Plant Protection (2015) 55: 183-188
Data pierwszej publikacji on-line: 2015-03-24 08:10:52
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