Progress in Plant Protection

Stilbenes and their role in disease resistance
Stilbeny i ich znaczenie w odporności roślin 

Monika Kozłowska, e-mail:

Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Katedra Fizjologii Roślin, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Polska

Łukasz Czekała, e-mail:

Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Katedra Fizjologii Roślin, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Polska

Phenylpropanoid pathway allows plants to withstand different stress conditions; biotic and abiotic. Some plants are able to synthesize stilbene derivatives based on a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. Stilbene synthase (STS) is an enzyme responsible for stilbene accumulation and it is generally believed that it evolved several times from chalcone synthase (CHS) during the evolution. However, STS unlike the commonly occurring CHS, is plant specific and occurs in approximately 70 unrelated plant species. Stilbenes have a range of functions, which mainly include strong antimicrobial properties, and thus are considered as phytoalexins. These compounds may also be involved in plant-herbivore relationships and allelopathy, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated. Stilbenes are still produced in small quantities, but the increase in their synthesis occurs due to infection, and moreover after injury, UV radiation and ozone. More effective elicitors are tested in vitro. The most widely reported plant stilbene is resveratro (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene).

Powszechnym zjawiskiem w warunkach stresu biotycznego i abiotycznego jest aktywacja szlaku fenylopropanoidowego. Metabolitami tego szlaku są między innymi stilbeny, związki o szkielecie 1,2-difenyloetylenowym. Tylko niektóre, niespokrewnione gatunki roślin, są zdolne do syntezy i gromadzenia stilbenów. Enzymem umożliwiającym syntezę jest syntaza stilbenowa (STS – stilbene synthase), która na drodze ewolucji mogła ewaluować z syntazy chalkonowej (CHS – chalcone synthase), powszechnego enzymu w świecie roślin. Stilbeny spełniają w roślinach szereg funkcji, z których najistotniejsza wynika z silnych właściwości antymikrobowych, stąd zaliczane są do fitoaleksyn. Znane jest też ich działanie odstraszające względem roślinożerców oraz właściwości allelopatyczne i antyoksydacyjne. Stilbeny są wytwarzane w niewielkich ilościach, jednak aktywacja biosyntezy następuje przede wszystkim poinfekcyjnie, a ponadto pod wpływem zranienia, promieniowania UV, ozonu i jonów glinu. W warunkach in vitro poszukiwane są jeszcze skuteczniejsze induktory. Do najszerzej opisywanych stilbenów należy resweratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroksy-trans-stilben).

Słowa kluczowe
stilbenes; disease resistance; resveratrol; stilbene synthase (STS); stilbeny; odporność roślin; resweratrol; syntaza stilbenowa (STS)

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