Progress in Plant Protection

Wpływ procesów technologicznych na poziomy stężeń naturalnych i syntetycznych substancji toksycznych występujących w roślinach rolniczych i ich produktach oraz metody oznaczania toksyn
The influence of technological processing on the concentration levels of natural and synthetic toxic substances present in agricultural plants and their products and determination methods of toxins

Magdalena Jankowska, e-mail: m.jankowska@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instytut Ochrony Roślin – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Terenowa Stacja Doświadczalna w Białymstoku, Chełmońskiego 22, 15-195 Białystok, Polska

Bożena Łozowicka, e-mail: B.Lozowicka@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instytut Ochrony Roślin – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Terenowa Stacja Doświadczalna w Białymstoku, Chełmońskiego 22, 15-195 Białystok, Polska
Streszczenie

Naturalne i syntetyczne substancje toksyczne występujące w roślinach rolniczych i ich produktach mogą stanowić ryzyko narażenia zdrowia ludzi i zwierząt. Obecność niepożądanych związków, takich jak alkaloidy, mykotoksyny czy pozostałości środków ochrony roślin (ś.o.r.) stwarza potrzebę poszukiwania metod oznaczania wymagających intensywnego przygotowania i oczyszczania próbek w celu oddzielenia analitów od matrycy, jak również opracowania skutecznych strategii eliminacji substancji celem zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa żywności. Procesy technologiczne są efektywnym narzędziem wpływającym na zmianę poziomu stężeń substancji toksycznych, zarówno toksyn naturalnego pochodzenia (alkaloidy, mykotoksyny), jak i będących wynikiem zanieczyszczenia roślin rolniczych pozostałościami ś.o.r. W przemyśle przetwórczym wykorzystuje się szereg metod fizycznych, chemicznych i biologicznych lub ich kombinacji, skutecznych w usuwaniu, przekształcaniu, detoksyfikacji i dekontaminacji toksycznych substancji występujących w roślinach. W pracy podsumowano metody przetwarzania roślin rolniczych oraz metody oznaczania substancji toksycznych opublikowane w ciągu ostatnich lat. Omówiono wpływ metod biologicznych, chemicznych i fizycznych na poziomy stężeń alkaloidów, mykotoksyn i pozostałości ś.o.r. w roślinach rolniczych i ich produktach.

 

Natural and synthetic toxic substances occurring in agricultural plants and their products may pose a risk to human and animal health. The presence of undesirable compounds such as alkaloids, mycotoxins and pesticide residues creates a necessity to search for determination methods requiring extensive sample preparation and clean-up to separate analytes from the matrix and also effective removal strategies to ensure food safety. Technological processing is one of the effective tools affecting the level of toxic substance, both regarding toxins of natural origin (alkaloids, mycotoxins) and the result of contaminating agricultural plants by residues of plant protection products. The processing industry uses a range of physical, chemical and biological methods, or their combinations, effective in removing, transforming, detoxifying and decontaminating toxic substances found in plants. The paper summarizes the processing methods of agricultural plants and determination methods of toxic substances published in recent years. It discusses the biological, chemical and physical methods on concentration levels of alkaloids, mycotoxins and pesticide residues in agricultural plants and their products.

Słowa kluczowe
pozostałości środków ochrony roślin; mykotoksyny; alkaloidy; substancje toksyczne; procesy technologiczne; pesticide residues; mycotoxins; alkaloids; toxic substances; technological processing
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Data pierwszej publikacji on-line: 2021-03-05 12:03:23
http://dx.doi.org/10.14199/ppp-2021-005
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